A Good Night's Sleep: Hush-a-bye Baby

Posted in Environment

Parrots and SleepJust as exposure to sunlight is important to your bird's health, so is exposure to darkness.  This is essential to their ability to get a restful night's sleep.  

Parrots are native to tropical and subtropical regions which are all at or near to the equator where the light and dark cycles remain fairly constant throughout the year.  At the equator there are 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark each day.  To the extent possible, we should allow our birds to adopt a natural sleep cycle that corresponds to the sunrise and sunset times as they would in  nature.

Our birds need more sleep (10-12 hours/day) than humans do and their ability to meet these needs is critical to their physical and emotional health.    Many of us do a disservice to our bird's well being by making them adhere to our crazy schedules, by keeping them up for late night TV or waking them up in the wee hours of the morning.

One of the reasons why exposure to darkness is critical to their ability to sleep is that, during light hours, our birds are instinctually wired to be on the lookout for predators.  In nature, it is under the cloak of darkness that they feel safest as this is when their numerous predators are also inactive.  For this reason, they do not feel relaxed enough to sleep when they are surrounded by night time lights, noise and movement.

Lack of adequate sleep can:

  •     negatively affect your bird's immune system
  •     result in low energy and elevated stress levels
  •     result in the development of negative behaviors (feather plucking, screaming, aggressiveness)

To facilitate your birds ability to sleep:

  •     Place your bird's cage in a room away from late night activity
  •     Use a second sleeping cage in a quiet, dark room of the house
  •     Use heavy curtains or blinds to block light
  •     Use a dark cage cover
  •     Provide your bird with a sleeping tent where he can escape and feel sheltered
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Air Quality

Posted in Environment

Parrot's and Air QualityIn the wild, parrots live and breathe in fresh air and they are not exposed to the types and levels of toxins present in our homes. Indoor air pollution is a major concern for all of us and even more of a concern for our birds. The air that surrounds us daily contains many allergens, pollens, molds, fungi, pollutants and dust. Our air tight, energy efficient homes just don't allow many of these indoor pollutants to escape. The conditions worsen when the weather is cold and we are unable to circulate fresh air from a source like a cracked window.

Parrots are extremely sensitive to the quality of the air environment around us. By design, to enable their ability to fly, their respiratory systems are highly efficient and virtually all of the air in their lungs is replaced with every breath. Birds also breathe at a much higher rate (25-40 times per minute) versus the typically respiration rate for humans (12-16). These factors combined mean that air pollutants can impact birds more quickly and more severely than humans. Canaries were used in the mining industry for this very reason; they served as an early warning system for the miners. Exposure to many pollutants can cause severe health problems, premature death and even an immediate fatality for your companion parrot.

A partial list of common household items that contain or generate toxic pollutants hazardous to birds follows:

  • Non-stick cookware and other items that utilize teflon such as irons, ironing board covers, heaters and hair dryers which will release toxic gas when overheated. Read labels carefully on all household appliances!
  • Tobacco products
  • Aerosols (hairspray, deodorant, perfume, cleaners, fabric deodorizers)
  • New carpeting
  • Wood stoves, kerosene heaters
  • Incense
  • Scented Candles
  • Air Fresheners
  • Cleaning fluids

How to Improve Household Air Quality

  • Remove all harmful chemicals and products from your house.
  • Install an air purification system with HEPA filters and change filters often to eliminate harmful particulates and dust.
  • Keep humidifiers and air conditioners clean and free from mold.
  • Use bird safe cleaning products.
  • Place houseplants around your home to purify air naturally.
  • Don't smoke indoors.
  • Remove birds from your house for at least a week if you plan on installing new carpeting. Ventilate your house thoroughly before allowing your birds to return home.
  • Store hazardous chemicals and items, such as paint, in outdoor sheds.
  • Have your furnace serviced annually to ensure efficient and safe operation and to minimize the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.

NASA researchers completed a study which concluded that common household plants are effective in reducing indoor air pollution. For more details on recommended plants and the toxins they eliminate check out the article NASA Study House Plants Clean Air. Please note that some of the plants mentioned in the study may be hazardous to your parrot and should be kept a safe distance away to avoid ingestion.

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Auditory Enrichment

Written by Robin Shewokis. Posted in Environment

Auditory EnrichmentAuditory enrichment is one of the least utilized forms of enrichment for captive parrots. In our exploration of the various types of enrichment we need to ask some questions about this option. The first question to ask is what is auditory enrichment. Auditory refers to anything that can be heard. This could be outside noises or noises inside your home. Anything that your bird hears is considered auditory. The second question is why should I bother with auditory enrichment. When considering the natural history of birds you have to think about their environment in the wild. They are constantly listening for the approach of other birds or perhaps the approach of predators. Their sense of hearing is very strong. Based on where many of the parrots kept as pets live in the wild they need to have very acute hearing to remain safe. The upper level of the rainforest canopy provides the safety in height but it creates the need for excellent hearing. Eclectus parrots have been noted as having an extremely well defined sense of hearing. This is due to their dwelling in the uppermost canopy level. In addition to listening for predators, parrots need to be able to hear across great distances as they call to other members of their flock. These calls can include alarm calls, locator calls and simple informational calls. If there is danger the parrots need to alert flock mates. As parrots fly through the forest or across the savannahs they need to be in contact. If contact is lost they may call loudly to locate their flock members. Finally it’s always good to be able to hear well when your flock mates call that there’s food in the vicinity. Some parrots will fly many miles in a day, foraging for food sources. Once a spot is found with an adequate amount of food they birds will call other flock members to let them know that dinner is served. In captivity many of these auditory needs are filled due to the proximity of the other members of the flock or the people who live in the home. Providing auditory enrichment allows the parrots to express some of that naturalistic behavior in a captive setting.

The easiest way to create a situation where auditory enrichment is occurring is to allow your parrot time to communicate in its own language. People are always asking what to do about their “screaming” parrots. My colleagues who deal with behavior management are asked about this issue at least once every time they speak. I am asked if enrichment can get parrots to stop screaming. It certainly can but I caution owners to make sure they offer opportunity for these vocalizations when it is appropriate. When the issue of the “screaming “ parrot arises I often ask what time of day the owner observes this behavior. Many times the answer is first thing in the morning and when the sun goes down. When this is the case I suggest that the owner take the opportunity for auditory enrichment. This calling at those times of the day is very naturalistic behavior. The parrots are waking up and calling to locate the other members of the flock. You may even cue your bird to this behavior and not even be aware that you are doing it. When you walk into your bird’s room or where the cage is located you probably call out a greeting. This is the same thing they’re doing only you probably do it a bit quieter. Allow some time for calling and then when it is time for quieter interactions offer praise and rewards for that quiet time. At the end of the day it is often a call to roost. This may be your bird telling you that it’s bedtime. By allowing this time you are providing an opportunity for enrichment that takes very little effort on your part. If you live in a small apartment or in close proximity to your neighbors you may want to warn them that the birds may be a bit loud at those times of the day but share with them why this is occurring. If the noise is an issue then you may not be able to offer this chance to your birds.

Many parrot owners play music for their pets or they leave the television on in a room to keep their parrots company. This is indeed auditory and sometimes visual enrichment but it doesn’t lead to naturalistic behaviors. When creating enrichment opportunities your should always try to keep naturalistic behaviors in mind. Consider offering a session of parrot calls for your pet. Many web sites offer free downloads of birdcalls. You can also purchase recordings of parrot calls on CD. In playing same species vocalizations for your parrot you are in fact doing some desensitization. If you bird is flighted and could possibly fly off one day you may have given yourself a good tool in getting that bird back. Sometimes in fly off situations playing vocalizations can call your bird down from a tree or other tall structure. So doing auditory enrichment will get your bird used to same species calls and this may be an added bonus.

You can also play natural sound recordings. These might include rainforest sounds or other nature recordings like frogs and bugs. On some occasions you might want to try playing predator vocalizations for your pet. Be careful when you offer this type of enrichment that your parrot is able to get away from the source of the sound and that you don’t leave the calls playing if your bird appears distressed. Short doses of negative stimuli are healthy for captive animals. You know your bird better than anyone else and you must be aware of how your bird is reacting. I was teaching a parrot enrichment workshop hosted by City Parrots in Leiden last February and showed the participants a device called the Identiflyer. It is a small hand held device that comes with cards that are inserted into the player. Those cards have recordings of many different types of birds including birds of prey, songbirds and waterfowl. I held up the device and pressed the button for the call of a Red Tailed Hawk. Many participants had brought their pet birds and at the time the birds were sitting quietly on perches at the back of the seminar room.

When I pressed the button and the hawk call was played all the parrots in the room sat up and took notice. I can say with a reasonable degree of certainty that most of those parrots had never heard a hawk let alone perceived one as a threat. Yet the hawk call was enough to get the blood pumping for those parrots. With the press of one button for the duration of less than ½ minute I had offered auditory enrichment to all the birds in the room.

A few final words on auditory enrichment. I’m sure most of you have experienced the parrot that picks up that one word that you would rather he didn’t and he repeats it over and over again. Use caution when providing auditory opportunities for your parrot. Don’t play sounds or vocalizations that you would rather not have “parroted” back at you. I’m sure your pets pick up enough of those noises on their own. Exercise care that you don’t offer stressful sounds too often and keep close watch on your birds before during and after any potentially stressful experiences. You are your bird’s best judge and you can spot the body language that tells you when your bird has had enough or is over stimulated. If you see those signs discontinue the opportunity. If you have a flock living at your house then auditory enrichment is one of the most cost effective methods of enrichment. You can provide for a large number of birds all at once and the cost is minimal if anything. So, now that you’ve heard my opinion of auditory enrichment, try some on your own. You may be surprised at what you hear from your feathered companions!



Robin Shewokis is the owner of The Leather Elves, a company that designs and manufactures enrichment devices for animals in captivity. The Leather Elves started as a family business that created enrichment for companion parrots. After working with several facilities that housed collections of parrots Robin realized that there was a need in those facilities for enrichment targeting other species.
In 2000 The Leather Elves began working with zoos internationally to enhance the level of enrichment provided. Since then Robin has consulted at zoos in the US, Canada and Holland and has distributed enrichment products worldwide.

In the companion parrot community Robin has spoken at numerous parrot clubs, providing a workshop that helps companion bird owners create a stimulating environment for their pets. Robin also works to develop new enrichment products for companion parrots that will stimulate naturalistic behavior when presented. Robin has published articles on enrichment in national and international publications. She is the enrichment columnist for the Flyer, a quarterly publication of the International Association of Avian Trainers and Educators.

Robin is a member of The American Association of Zookeepers and The International Association of Avian Trainers and Educators. Robin works closely with the AAZK enrichment committee as an advisor and is a member of the IAATE enrichment committee. At the 2006 AAZK conference Robin received a certificate of appreciation for her contributions to the field of enrichment with regard to management of captive exotics.

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Cage Placement

Posted in Environment

Parrot Cage PlacementIn the wild, a bird gets to choose when and where to perch, sleep and forage and they always choose locations where they feel safe and secure.   Parrots are prey animals and instinctually on alert for predators at all times.  A caged bird doesn't have the opportunity to decide most of this and, when they are scared, they don't have a flight option.  Your parrot companion should feel secure and safe in its home and the choice of location for their cage is important for your parrot’s overall mental health.

Parrots are flock birds and in your home, their cage should be placed in an area where they can interact with you, their flock, on a regular basis.

In order to help your bird have a greater sense of security, as well as a sense of belonging to the flock, the following factors should be considered when deciding where to place your bird's cage:

  • Avoid placement directly in front of windows or in busy hallways where they could be startled by sudden movement.
  • Place their cage so they can easily observe people and other family pets entering their room.
  • At least one side of the cage should be against a wall or in a corner to enhance their sense of protection.
  • Placement of the cage with a nearby view of a window may provide a source of entertainment and stimulation to your bird.  This will give them an opportunity to observe the ever changing weather,  wind in the trees, outdoor birds and neighbors and experience daylight cycles.   With careful placement, you can deliver the "outdoor experience" to your parrot within the safety of the indoors.
  • Don't place a cage near an outside door or window where they may be subject to rapid temperature changes or possibly escape during a moment of inattention.
  • Birds need to have dark and quiet place to sleep (10-12 hours) and therefore their cage should be in a room where they aren't subject to late night activity.
  • Cage placement in kitchens is not recommended due to the potential for exposure to toxic fumes and smoke as well as other hazards.
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Considerations When Choosing a Cage

Posted in Environment

Choosing a Parrot CageThe single most important item you will ever purchase for your parrot companion is its cage.   There are many factors that must be considered in making a safe and appropriate choice for your bird:

  • Size
  • Style
  • Construction
  • Bar Spacing
  • Bar Orientation (horizontal/vertical)
  • Ease of maintenance
  • Cage Placement

Cage Size - The Bigger the Better

As humans, we seek out nature to enjoy the massive expanse of openness, beauty and the sense of freedom that it conveys.  Compared to the freedom they experience in the wild, our parrots are severely restricted in captivity.  A cage is your bird's primary environment and it is of the utmost importance that they be able to move freely, flap their wings, climb, play, do acrobatics, forage and perch at multiple levels within that environment.  Keeping your bird in a cage that doesn't allow for participation in these activities will be detrimental to the physical and mental well-being of your companion and may lead to the development of stereotypical behaviors such as screaming, feather plucking and aggressiveness. Therefore, the first rule when choosing a cage is to buy the largest possible cage that you can afford from both a space and financial perspective.

Please refer to our handy Cage Size Guide for species specific cage size recommendations.

Style Considerations

Cages should be purchased with functionality and safety taking precedence over  eye appeal.   Fortunately, there are cage manufacturers who are combining the best of both worlds by making safe, functional and attractive cages.   There are many choices when it comes to cage style.   Here are a few important considerations to ponder:

  • Cage Shape

Cages come in a variety of shapes from rectangular to round.  Although round cages may be attractive, they really cut down on available living space for your bird and as such aren't recommended.

Again, size matters.  Be sure to choose a cage that offers as much horizontal and vertical space as possible.  Small birds such as finches and budgies need a large horizontal cage where they may fly from one side to another.  Large parrots like the Macaws and Cockatoos need a large vertical cage so they may climb up the bars but they should also be wide enough to allow for wing flapping.

  • Dome vs. Play Top

Dome Top cages provide more space for your bird to climb and play.  They also allow for easier placement of toys and perches within the cage.

Play Top Cages have a built-in play area on the top of the cage which provides an alternate space for your bird to hang out under supervision.  

The best of both worlds can be achieved by the purchase of a dome top cage and a separate play gym that is portable to different rooms in the house so that your bird can participate in all aspects of family life.

  • Door Size and Style

There are a few functions that should be considered relative to cage openings:

    • Do the cage doors allow for easy removal of your bird and cleaning?
    • Does the door configuration allow for cage access while at the same time prevent the bird from escaping?
    • Are the food bowls accessible from the outside of the cage?

Bar Spacing & Orientation

Bar spacing is an important safety consideration when to choosing a suitable cage.  Your parrot should not be able to put its head through and get wedged in the space between the bars.    Additionally,  the diameter and strength of each bar should be large enough to ensure that the bars can not be bent or broken by your bird.

A combination of vertical and horizontal bars will help to facilitate climbing and allow for more options when hanging toy accessories in the cage.

Please refer to our Cage Size Guide for recommendations as to species specific bar spacing.

Safe Construction

Sturdiness and durability are key factors in ensuring your bird will have a long lasting and secure environment.   Cages are made out of a variety of materials each with pros and cons and varied lifetimes.   

Metal is the most durable of the materials commonly used.   Metal cages are typically powder-coated iron or they are made from stainless steel.

Powder coated cages come in a variety of fashionable colors and are less expensive than Stainless Steel.

Stainless steel is the safest, most durable, toxic-free, easiest to clean cage material available.   If you can afford a stainless steel cage, it will be the best cage investment you can make.

Acrylic cages may allow for an enhanced view of your bird but, it is reported, that they are not as durable as metal bar cages and they offer restricted opportunities for climbing.

Wood cages are most often used for smaller, non-destructive bird species (i.e., finches, canaries).   Wood cages are difficult to clean and definitely not recommended for hookbills who will ultimately chew their way out of the cage.

New cages should be inspected thoroughly to ensure that they do not present any hazards that will endanger your bird as follows:

  • Check all sides, connections, and fasteners.
  • Are there loose parts or accessible parts that a mechanically inclined bird can disassemble?
  • Are the seams well-fitting?
  • Are the welds smooth and rust free?
  • Are the bars and welds strong enough for your bird?
  • Is the powder coat flaking?
  • Is the cage top securely fastened to the frame?
  • Are the locks and or latches adequate to contain your bird and prevent escapes?
  • Do the perches fit securely?
  • Can the bird escape when the tray is removed?

Ease of Maintenance

Nobody has perfected the self cleaning cage yet, but, there are many factors that will make your job easier:

  • Stainless steel cages are the easiest to clean and they will never chip or rust.     
  • Trays need to be easy to remove and clean.   The litter tray should be far enough below the grate to prevent birds from reaching down with their feet to grab food items that may have fallen and become spoiled or contaminated by droppings.
  • Seed Guards help to reduce the mess inevitably created on your floor by tossed food, empty seed hulls, molted feathers and chewed up toys by deflecting these tossed items back into the cage bottom.
  • Grates on cages for large birds should be easy to remove for cleaning but should also have a locking feature to prevent them from being pushed out by an escape artist.
  • Food dishes for large birds should be accessible from the outside of the cage.  Many cages now incorporate this important feature.   Stainless steel or ceramic bowls will be the easiest to clean and disinfect.
  • Casters will allow you to move a heavy cage more easily away from the wall to allow for cleaning.
  • Storage space is often incorporated into cages in the form of a base cabinet or a simple shelf below the cage.  This provides a great spot to store food, toys, newspapers, cage covers and cage cleaning supplies.
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Creating the Optimal Environment for Your Bird

Posted in Environment

Optimal Environment for your ParrotBirds in the wild are encircled by an amazingly vast, beautiful and always changing environment that is also full of challenge, opportunity, risk and reward. 

Parrots are free to define their own territory, choose their mates, search for interesting new foraging spots, decide what to eat, where to perch and where to sleep.  

We cannot come close to mimicking all the options that are available to parrots in nature, but as responsible parrot companions, it is up to us to recreate, to the best of our ability, an enriched environment that addresses our birds physical, emotional and instinctual needs.

We can accomplish this by:

  • educating ourselves as to their specific environmental needs
  • careful selection of safe cages and accessories
  • properly controlling their climate
  • providing the proper balance of light and dark
  • maintaining a clean and healthy environment and
  • providing them opportunities to explore and interact with their surroundings

Each of these areas of critical importance is discussed in further detail within our related articles and information sections.

Talk about environmental enrichment!.......check out this interesting video highlighting what one bird lover did to accommodate her feathered friends at home:



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Environmental Sound Enrichment

Posted in Environment

Environmental Sound EnrichmentIn the wild, there is a continuous background of nature sounds; birds vocalizing, insects buzzing, leaves rustling in the wind, raindrops, etc.   Birds living within the confines of our sound proof homes live in relative silence.  Silence in the wild is usually a warning signal, indicating the presence of a predator.

Sounds are very stimulating and intriguing to our birds.  Just ask any owner of an African Grey how many noises they have learned to imitate and perform at just the appropriate time.   The noise from a running vacuum cleaner has often been observed to stimulate a bird's interest in bathing and it has been suggested that this is because the sound is reminiscent of raindrops hitting the leaves in the rainforest.

Therefore it seems logical that birds might benefit from some form of environmental sound enrichment.  This would be especially true if their owner is absent all day and they don't have a feathered flock to hang out with.

Perhaps the best sound enrichment is nature itself.

  • If you live in the country and the climate/ allows, then opening the windows (screened) may be the simplest option.  This will allow your bird to hear the outdoor songbirds and enjoy some fresh air as well.
  • There are some exciting new products specifically designed to entertain pet birds with sounds and even pictures of parrots in the wild.
  • It's a well known fact that many birds enjoy music as demonstrated by their singing and dancing to the beat.  Leaving a radio on during your absence may be both entertaining as well as comforting.
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Happy Feet - All About Perches

Written by Administrator. Posted in Environment

Parrot PerchesYour bird is on their feet 24/7.  In the wild, they have a multitude of choices of where to perch and can fly from branch to branch giving their feet and legs exercise.  In nature, parrots are also exposed to branches of various sizes, widths, and orientations.  The perches in your bird’s cage should mimic these natural conditions as much as possible.

By providing the proper variety of perches in your bird's cage you can help to prevent foot problems such as arthritis, tendonitis, atrophy or pressure sores from developing.

Several perches of varying size and texture also provide your bird with the opportunity to choose what may be most comfortable to them at any point during their day.

Perches are available in a wide variety of natural and synthetic materials.  There are also many interesting specialty perches available to meet an array of needs.  A minimum of three different types of perches should be in your bird's cage.   For more information on perches, check out our related articles.

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How to Keep Your Exotic Bird Healthy, Safe and Warm this Winter

Posted in Environment

Keep Your Parrot Warm in WinterThe winter months are upon us and they  present some unique challenges when it comes to keeping our birds healthy and safe.  The colder temperatures, lower humidity and shorter days of winter can all negatively impact our bird's health.

Fortunately, although  most exotic birds come from warm tropical climates, healthy birds are very capable of adapting to the cooler temperatures we experience in winter.  Sudden changes in temperature and drafts are more dangerous than a bird's gradual acclimation to cooler temperatures.  

Feathers are a bird's built-in insulators and are the key to their ability to  regulate body temperature.  Contour feathers overlap like shingles to hold nature's elements at bay  and a bird's downy  feathers trap air and heat close to their body.     Birds who are pluckers are extremely challenged when it comes to regulating their body temperature so extra care must be taken to ensure their environment is controlled.     Exposure to extreme temperatures can stress a bird's immune system and  make them more susceptible to illness.

Winter also presents the  challenge of low humidity, especially in homes with forced air heating systems.  Low humidity can lead to dry nasal and breathing passages as well as an increase in dust and dander in the home environment.

As caring bird owners there are several things we can do to ensure our birds remain healthy, safe and comfortable throughout the winter months:

    1)  Reduce your bird's exposure to drafts by insulating your windows and relocating your bird's cages away from windows, doors and heating ducts.

    2)  Utilize a cage cover or well fitting blanket over the cage at bedtime.   

    3)  In the wild, many  birds will roost in flocks in part to share body heat.   Pet birds often enjoy the opportunity to climb into a snuggly tent for shelter and warmth.  

    4)  Birds lose a lot of body heat through their feet.  Thermal perches are available to keep your bird's feet comfortably warm.

    5)  Use a bird safe space heater to keep your bird room warm.  Be sure to avoid using fuel burning heaters due to the potential for fire as well as heaters with toxic Teflon coatings.

    6)  Bird safe heat lamps are a great way to focus heat on your bird's cage but be sure to keep them out of your bird's reach.

    7)  Fireplaces can pose a smoke hazard which is especially  dangerous for a bird's very sensitive respiratory  system.  Never leave fires unattended and utilize smoke detectors in your house.

    8)  To combat the effect of lower humidity  we suggest you  utilize a humidifier and give your bird daily misting baths or showers each morning so that they have the warmth of the day to dry.

    9)  Daylight hours are much shorter in the winter months and this has an impact on the biological cycles of our birds.  We recommend using full spectrum lighting in your bird room to maintain and promote your bird's health.

    10)  In the winter we typically keep all of our doors and windows shut which means our houses are poorly ventilated.  As a result fumes from cleaners, candles and body care products have no where to go.   Be sure to limit the use of unnecessary chemicals and choose only bird safe cleaners and candles for use in your house.

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Written by Administrator. Posted in Environment

Humidity and your parrotIn the wild, parrots live in the tropics and subtropics where they are exposed, every day, to very humid conditions. Humidity is important for healthy skin and feathers. The lack of humidity can result in dry flaky and itchy skin which will irritate your parrot companion and can lead to feather plucking.

Low humidity can also dry the sinus cavity of your parrot.  Signs to watch for include:  sneezing, continual scratching of the nostrils, and frequent shaking of its head.

The optimum home humidity level for parrots is between 40-60%.  This level gives the appropriate amount of moisture without encouraging mold and mildew growth.

Some suggestions for increased humidity include:

  •     Maintain a bacteria free humidifier.
  •     Mist your birds daily.
  •     Place your bird in a closed bathroom with a hot shower running.

If you use a woodstove or fireplace to heat your home then be aware that this depletes the air of humidity.  Placing a pan of water on your stove will add moisture back into the air.

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